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Being a member of The Christmas Conspiracy! can get you excommunicated from your church. The goal of The Christmas Conspiracy! is to abolish all churches. We recommend that co-conspirators do not leave their church (if they are presently members). We urge them to remain a member and work to convince all other members of the church to join The Christmas Conspiracy! and to "ordain" themselves to their own ministry, and to convince the pastor, priest or minister to resign and join these co-conspirators in equipping all the members for the work of their ministry.
The author of this webpage was excommunicated from an Orthodox Presbyterian Church pastored by Greg L. Bahnsen. Through the mediatorial efforts of Prof. John M. Frame, of the Westminster Theological Seminary in Escondido, Calif., Bahnsen and the author were reconciled and the ban of excommunication was lifted.
Although Bahnsen and the author had many doctrinal disputes, the issue in this case was not doctrinal, according to the Session. The issue was slander. The case was precipitated by the "anarchist" beliefs of The Christmas Conspiracy! that the institutions of church and state had no Biblical legitimacy. Bahnsen responded with a paper entitled, "Is It Our Moral Obligation to Attend Church?" The author of this webpage responded with a paper of his own. This paper formed the basis for most of the particulars of the charges filed against him.
The issues raised in this dispute (about "attending church," not necessarily the issues in the trial re: slander) are critical to the Christian Reconstruction movement, and require a "paradigm shift" in our thinking.
This Web Page contains both Bahnsen's Position Paper (on the left in this color) and the response (on the right in this color). The response has been edited to conform to the demands of the Session regarding slanderous rhetoric. The issues remain clearly focused. Hypertext jumps from the Session's paper take the reader to arguments in the response. The text of Bahnsen's paper is taken from a revised version found at the Contra Mundum/Antithesis site.
Is It Our Moral Obligation to Attend Church?
Dr. Greg L. Bahnsen
No. 011 February, 1986 Perspectives in Creationist Anarcho-Socialism
WHY CHRISTIANS SHOULD NOT "ATTEND CHURCH"
Interaction with a Covenant Community Church Position Paper
|Attending church is far from
being the chosen Sunday activity for most people in our culture. This
should not surprise us, of course, when those who sleep in, go to work,
or find other recreations in the place of attending church are
unbelievers. Unregenerate hearts do not seek God or find pleasure in
worshiping Him. What is surprising (and dismaying) is that today many
professing believers also neglect the corporate worship of God.
Why is this? On the one hand, some Christians see church as just one of many personal options along with Sunday brunch, the ball game, etc. On the other hand, some Christians consider informal fellowship groups or Bible studies an adequate replacement for church attendance. But all Christians must be open to the teaching of God's holy word, and it is to this standard that we turn for an answer to our original question.
|Hebrews 10:24-25 gives a
It would seem, then, that the question, "Is it our moral obligation to attend church?" receives a fairly straightforward answer: of course.
How, then, can we assert that one should not "attend church"?
The command in Hebrews 10 (namely, to "exhort one another") is also found in Hebrews 3:13:
If we claim to obey Hebrews 10:24-25 by "attending church" on Sunday morning, do we also fulfill the command to exhort one another daily. when we see other Christians only once a week?
Moreover, do we even obey the basic command to exhort one another when we simply listen to the polished oratory of a philosopher? Are we really obeying the Biblical commands concerning exhortation, community, and mutual accountability by once a week watching the performance of a seminary-trained entertainer?
Millions of "Christians" "attend church" every Sunday in America, and yet literacy and morality are in sharp decline. More sermons are preached and broadcast than in any previous century, yet the 20th century is the most violent in human history. To churches we ask, "What have you done for us lately?"
What started out as an apparently obvious issue seems now to be at least a little less clear. What we see on TV and in thousands of churches across the land tells me we need some clarity on this issue.
|On February 2, 1986, the
Covenant Community Church session [of the Orthodox
Presbyterian Church] published a Position Paper entitled, "Is it
our Moral Obligation to Attend Church?" I think this paper exhibits
a very dogmatic tone on a question which deserves more flexible analysis.
Everybody who reads Hebrews 10:24-25 realizes that atomism or
isolationism is contrary to the Christian Spirit. A Family which locks
its doors to the saints, withdraws from the world, and neglects the poor,
which spends its time alone in reclusive introspection, is violating the
clear commands of the Bible concerning hospitality
and the communion of saints.
And anyone who refuses to "attend church" because he feels that he is a gifted teacher with all the answers and nobody in his church listens to him, probably has some lessons in humility to learn.
But the real question (and the question which generated the CCC Position Paper) was not whether Christians should exhort one another daily, but whether it is required of Christians to engage in a certain kind of meeting, with certain credentialed officers present, to expose themselves to a specified ritual of acts which are called "attending church."
By examining the CCC Position Paper we can clarify the Biblical requirements concerning worship, mutual exhortation and community as well as the distinctive Vine & Fig Tree perspective.
Here are our main points:
These four points are very plainly at odds with most every church in the country. They are especially contrary to the emerging "ecclesiocentrist" wing of the "Christian Reconstruction" movement. But my purpose is not simply to be different, nor to insult all other churches. My purpose is to analyze even apparently "obvious" traditions in the light of the Scriptures (Acts 17:11).
I began attending Covenant Community Church because they claimed to be a part of a growing movement of Christians who worked for the "Christian Reconstruction" of every area of life according to God's Law in the Bible. They claimed that God's Word gave us a blueprint which would in fact be implemented on earth in this present age by the power of the Holy Spirit. I took these basic principles and came to a position which at one point I called Creationist Anarcho-Socialism In Vine & Fig Tree Studyletters and Working Papers we attempt to exposit the implications of an important passage of Scripture, Micah 4:1-7. It reads,
This passage, and the many allusions to it throughout Scripture, have led us to a position described in one of our Studyletters as "Patriarchy." In many respects it resembles the Libertarian position of "free-market" political economy. Yet it also sympathizes with the contrary position, socialism, in its criticisms of the "rugged individualism" of "the free market" individualism. It is "anarchistic," in that it denies the legitimacy of the State and other "archists"; it is "communistic" in that it strives to be faithful to the Biblical emphasis on community and society, not just individual "rights" and "freedoms." In this examination of the CCC Position Paper we shall return again and again to this "postmillennial" vision of decentralized peace and cultural wholeness.
What is "WORSHIP"?
The basic meaning of the word "worship" is service. To "worship" God is to put every area of one's life under the His Law. As The New Bible Dictionary puts it, "[T]he essential concept in both the Old and New Testaments is 'service.'" John Murray writes,
Worship in the generic sense is thus service to God in every area of life; total slavery to Him Who is Lord of all.
In the Old Testament there was also a more specific usage for "worship," namely, the observance of the ceremonial rituals given to a Spiritually juvenile pre-Pentecost people. These ritual observances typified worship in every area of life. Animal sacrifice, the burning of incense, attendance at temple, and other rigors were imposed on the slave-like people of Egyptized Israel (Galatians 3:24 - 4:9), and were but shadows of the worship of the New Covenant.
Jesus spoke of the New Covenant form of worship in John 4. The woman at the well, having been confronted with the ethical demands of the Lord Jesus (regarding her adulterous life), attempts a "doctrinal" diversion: she asks Jesus about "worship." Putting words in Jesus' mouth, she claims that worship occurs in a certain place (Jerusalem). (4:20). Jesus denies it:
Here is the "Mountain" of Micah 4, the New Zion which covers the entire globe (Daniel 2:35).
In the common, specific sense, "worship" means attending to the ceremonial requirements of the Old Covenant, going to a certain place (cf. Acts 8:27). But these acts only symbolized true "worship," and were necessary to prod a Spiritless people to that Christian worship which is obedience to God in every area of life.
Thus, the phrase "worship service" is quite redundant! Can you find one occurrence in the New Testament of "worship" in the ceremonial/specific sense being required of Christians? Or are the occurrences of "worship" speaking of obedience in every area of life? Do any of the Greek words used for "worship" occur in any sense requiring Christians to go to Jerusalem, or a specific "mountain" to "worship" God? Would we expect centralized ceremonial "worship" to be required in light of Micah's prophecy? (If you "attend church," have you been trained to search the Scriptures to find the answers to such questions as these [Acts 17:11], or do you need to ask your "pastor"?)
The New Testament is clear: the "worship" required of believers does not consist in ceremonial ritual. Colossians 2:18 says,
The Greek word translated "worship" is "religion" in James 1, where we are told,
Of course, "worship" is not limited to visiting orphans and widows, but involves obedience outside the temple, outside the synagogue, outside the cathedral, in every area of life.
Old Testament Law, Piety, and Prophets
The Mosaic lawcommanded God's people to gather together for corporate worship and the hearing of God's word (e.g., Deut. 12:5-12; 31:11-12). Indeed, the law of God required that the weekly Sabbath in particular be a "holy convocation" (Lev. 23:3). Regardless of outward circumstances (e.g., seventh-day sabbath, a localized central tabernacle), the worship required in the Old Testament law entailed the basic moral element of assembling with God's people to hear His word and praise His name.
The Enduring Old Testament Law
Vine & Fig Tree has been greatly influenced by the so-called "Theonomic" perspective, which sees the details of the Old Testament as binding unless the New Testament (or the Law itself) specifically indicates that the former observance is to take a new form in the New Covenant. The CCC Position Paper would lead us to believe that it too has been influenced by the "Theonomic" perspective.
But a Biblical Theonomist must admit that there have been changes in the significance of assembling in Jerusalem. The Position Paper speaks of "outward circumstances (e.g., seventh-day sabbath, a localized central tabernacle)" And rightly so; the circumstances have indeed changed. David Chilton, following Meredith Kline, has pointed out that in the New Covenant, God is transforming the entire world into His Garden-Temple. The whole cosmos is to be the House of God. The Church is a Holy Priesthood and a Spiritual Temple, filled with His Presence.
"Hearing God's Word"
In the first paragraph, we are told that "The Mosaic law commanded God's people to gather for corporate worship and the hearing of God's Word (e.g., Deut. 12:5-12; 31:11-12)" (our emphasis: what do these phrases mean?). The Old Testament required travel to a centralized location to hear a special priesthood. Do we still have to get God's Word from a special priesthood? Compare these commands with Micah's prophecy of the Holy Mountain, and with Jesus' conversation with the woman at the well. Do we still go to Jerusalem? Must we listen to Moses or the priests to hear God's Word? How does a "free-market" distribution of God's Word (Bible publication) seem evident in our day? Is the distribution of God's Word dependent upon an ecclesiastical organization? Are the commentaries and theology books which are used by churchmen published and overseen by ecclesiastical institutions, or by the "free market"? How about the books we find valuable in our Christian walk? Did we have to "go to Jerusalem" to get them? Have you ever been blessed by a book your "pastor" hasn't even heard of?
Deuteronomy 12:10 is an interesting verse. A parallel can be found in Leviticus 25:28, and we are reminded of Micah 4:4. Every so often in Old Testament history God gives His People a taste of the Edenic restoration and decentralized peace which is promised to those who are obedient to His Word. One such example is in Judges 18:7, where the KJV word "careless" is the word "safety" in Deuteronomy and Leviticus, and the same concept as in Micah 4:4. Had the Israelites obeyed Moses they would have "dwelt in safety," for Moses desired decentralized competence and spontaneous Spirit-empowered obedience to God's Law (Deut 5:29-31; Numbers 11:29; cf. Proverbs 6:9-11; 30:24,27). These promises are being fulfilled in the New Covenant.
|The religious piety of the Old Testament saint was evident in his desire to "Render unto Jehovah the glory due unto His name: bring an offering, and come before Him; Worship Jehovah in the beauty of Holiness" (I Chron. 16:29; cf. Ps. 96:8-9). The believer is eager to worship in the midst of the assembled people of God. David the Psalmist wrote, "I will declare Thy name unto my brethren; in the midst of the assembly will I praise Thee" (Ps. 22:22). " I will give Thee thanks in the great assembly; I will praise Thee among the people" (Ps. 35:18; cf. 116:12-17). Many of the psalms emphasize the fact that David worshipped along with a congregaton [sic] of other believers (e.g., Ps. 42:4; 55:14; 122:1; 132:7).||In paragraph two, I
Chronicles 16:29 is quoted. Obviously we do not
"bring an offering" or "come before Him" in the same
way we did in the Old Covenant. Nor do we "hear God's Word" (CCC's
phrase) by going to the typological temple and hearing a priest. We
are all priests now, and God's Word has gone out through all the
world (Romans 10:18; Colossians 1:23).
Old Covenant believers would be astonished at the scope of publication of God's Word in our day. They would also be amazed at the method in which Micah's prophecy is being fulfilled ("From Zion shall go forth the Law, even the Word of the LORD from Jerusalem"). Believer-priests, in voluntary associations, publish God's Word and assure its accurate transmission and continued exposition. This is guided not by the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith's "free market," of course, but by the powerful work of the Holy Spirit Himself. Thus, publishers should labor as priests under God, and see their work as having great and special Spiritual significance.
This massive outpouring of Truth works to enable every believer-priest to know and study God's Word and to proclaim it to his neighbors. And it all takes place outside the walls of institutional ecclesiocracies. In fact, the "church" has historically opposed the free dissemination of Scripture and its exposition (cf. WLC Q. 156 for a recognition of this fact, and yet, discouragingly, a remnant of this thinking).
All of this should be understood as the true Spiritual meaning of the Old Testament prophecies. Calvin cites Joel 2:28 ("In the last days I will pour my Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and daughters shall prophesy; your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions") as an example of how the world-wide decentralized spread of the Gospel was spoken of by the Prophets:
Similarly did Moses speak, when he prayed that God would make all of His people Prophets (Numbers 11:29; cf. Acts 2:17f.) In this sense we are all prophets, priests, and kings (I Peter 2:5,9; Revelation 1:6; 5:10; Isaiah 61:6; 66:21).
Thus, no building can be said to be the place to worship simply because of the presence of the special "ordained" priests. Every Believer is a Priest. We need not "go to Jerusalem." This is why New Testament believers break bread and worship "from house to house" (Acts 2:46).
|David's inspired testimony shows that his desire for congregational worship is normative for all God's people. He declared to all believers: "O come let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before Jehovah our Maker" (Ps. 95:6). "Come before His presence with singing...Enter into His gates with thanksgiving, and into His courts with praise. Give thanks unto Him and bless His name (Ps. 100:2,4). "Let them exalt Him also in the assembly of the people, and praise Him in the seat of the elders" (Ps. 107:32). "Praise ye Jehovah. Sing unto Jehovah a new song and His praise in the assembly of the saints" (Ps. 149:1).||
"Come Before His Presence"
Psalm 22:22 is also quoted, and it is cited in Hebrews 2:12, as referring to Christ. How does Christ stand in the midst of the assembly (Church) and declare His Name? Only in certain buildings at certain times? Matthew 18:20 spells doom for those who would so assert: "For where two or three are gathered in My Name, there am I in the midst of them." His Presence with us is through the Comforter, the Holy Spirit (John 14:16-17), who fulfills Moses' wish that we could all be prophets and not have to be dependent upon special priests (I John 2:20-27). God's Presence is not localized; we are His temple (Paper, p. 2; Ephesians 2:20-22), and as Christians exercise dominion over the entire globe, Christ is correspondingly present (Matthew 28:18,20).
"Worship in Every Place"
The Position Paper will not deny that worship is to take place "everywhere," but requires a certain special place for "worship." Does Scripture require this "special" place in addition to "everywhere"?
There is something quite suspicious about the Position Paper's habit of quoting Old Testament verses which were clearly expressing typological truths concerning a future day:
Similar analysis must be made on passages mentioning God's "courts," and His "gates."
|Old Testament prophecy likewise
shows us that those who are true believers will desire of assemblewith
[sic] God's people to hear His word and praise His name in congregational
worship. For instance, Isaiah the prophet indicated that converts to the
Lord would join themselves to the corporate worship of God's people in
"Jehovah's house of prayer" (Is. 56:6-7;
quoted by Jesus in Mark 11:17).
One of the burdens of Malachi's prophecy was that the corrupt worship among the Jews of his day would, in the future age of God's advent, be replaced with pure worship among the Gentiles in every place (Mal.1:11; 3:3-4).
Therefore, the law, piety, and prophecy of the Old Testament all combine to point us to our moral obligation to gather together with God's people for worship.
"But that was the Old Testament, with its Jerusalem temple and seventh-day Sabbath," someone might complain. This complaint diminishes the full authority of God's inspired word. Referring to the Old Testament, Paul taught "every scripture is inspired and is profitable for...instruction in righteousness" (2 Tim. 3:16). Of course, changes from the covenantal administration and foreshadows of the Old Testament to the redemptive realities of the New Testament must be recognized (much of the book of Hebrews serves this very purpose).
Nevertheless, Jesus obliges us to submit to the continuing validity of "every jot and tittle" of the Old Testament (Matt. 5:17-19), and Paul teaches that "whatever was written previously in the Old Testament was written "for our instruction" (Rom. 15:4). In that light, we would naturally expect that the moral obligation of corporate worship which is taught in the Old Testament will continue into the New. God continues to call a people for Himself in the New Testament, and God surely continues to be worthy of their praise.
four, mention is made of Prophecy, and of predicted
"congregational worship" in "God's House of Prayer."
Shall we, with the Dispensationalists, expect a rebuilt temple? Of course
not. As Jesus might have told the woman at the well, "One
of the burdens of Malachi's prophecy was that the corrupt worship among
the Jews of his day would, in the future age of God's advent, be replaced
with pure worship among the Gentiles in every place (Mal. 1:11;
3:3-4)." Worship would no longer be limited or tied to Jerusalem, or
to the outward shadows of the Old Covenant, as Calvin comments:
How do we worship God in the New Covenant? Do we need an institutional priesthood? Must we journey to a certain centralized location? Must we "attend church"?
Throughout the Position Paper, it is virtually implied that those who do not "worship" in a certain place (subordinate to a priestly caste) do not believe in "assembling" together, in living corporately or with any appreciation of the Community we have in Christ. This is false. The question is not "Are we to 'gather together'"?, but rather "How are we to 'gather together'"? Says the Position Paper (p.1, ¶6):
This is an ugly authoritarianism. The "oldness" of the Older Testament is a legitimate issue, even for Theonomists. To accuse one of diminishing the authority of God's Law is deceptive.
It would be just as fair to accuse the Position Paper of "Judaism." The Judaizers told the Christians that unless they observed the ceremonial requirements of the Old Covenant they weren't being faithful. Their purpose was not to make spontaneously obedient Patriarchs out of the new converts, but to gain power over them (Galatians 2:4). We certainly believe in fulfilling the Spiritual intent of the Old Covenant ceremonies. To say we do not obey the Word because we do not literally "bring an offering" and "come before Him" in some rebuilt temple is misleading. As the Paper goes on to say, "Of course, changes from the covenantal administration and foreshadows of the Old Testament to the redemptive realities of the new Testament must be recognized.:.:." (pp. 1-2).
Nor does it help us to answer the question of how we are to worship simply to say that "Jesus obliges us to submit to the continuing validity of 'every jot and tittle' of the Old Testament (Matt. 5:17-19), and Paul teaches that 'whatever was written previously' in the Old Testament was written 'for our instruction' (Rom. 15:4)." The CCC Position Paper is quite insensitive to the many possible ways we may observe the temple requirements of the Old Covenant. Greg Bahnsen, in his book By This Standard, more accurately observes,
Failing to observe this perceptive caveat, the Paper makes this dangerous statement: "In that light, we would naturally expect that the moral obligation of corporate worship which is taught in the Old Testament will continue into the New." Of course it does! The question is, how? We may be "naturally" led to assume that the ceremonial requirements of the Old Age are to be observed now, but our expectations ought to be Spiritual. The Judaizers certainly reasoned in a "natural" way, but we must not (I Cor. 2:14-16).
The Paper concludes the section on the Old Testament with this statement: "God continues to call a people for Himself in the New Testament, and God surely continues to be worthy of their praise." Why say this? Who denies this? Are those who question the traditional "worship service" possibly-reprobate spiritual slackers? It is hoped that unwary readers will not be misled by this statement, inferring that those who deny CCC-type "worship" deny thereby that God is worthy of praise.
The New Testament Normative Example
In this section the Paper claims that the pattern of the New Testament Church is normative, that is, that whatever they did, we should do. Generally this is true. But more analysis is needed than this.
The Apostles and Elders instructed the early Christians to attend synagogue (Acts 15:21). Should we do the same? Paul forbad any prohibition on speaking in tongues (I Corinthians 14:39). Is tongue-speaking for today? The early churches had unbelievers sit in a room separate from the believers (I Corinthians 14:16). I think this is a good idea; is it binding on us today? Even after the Resurrection, Paul purified himself in the temple (Acts 21:26). Is this "normative" for us today? There are many similar examples of things which took place in "the last days" of the Old Covenant, which should not, at least without some serious thought, be urged on us after the destruction of the Jewish system. In fact, the entire nature of the Apostolic government of the early Church needs to be re-examined: we no longer have Apostles, yet many in our day claim Apostolic powers for themselves.
the Old Testament sabbath, New Testament
believers confess that Jesus Christ is "the Lord of the
Sabbath" (Mark 2:28). In the New Testament age, it is thus
appropriately called "the Lord's day" (Rev. 1:10). Scripture
shows that since the Lord's resurrection, this day has been changed from
the last to the first day of the week.
Regarding the Old Testament temple, New Testament believers confess that they themselves now constitute "the temple of God" wherin God's Spirit dwells (1 Cor. 3:16-17; Eph. 2:20-22; 1 Pet. 2:5). The outward trappings of Old Covenant worship have been changed in the days of the New Covenant. The basic moral obligation of "holy convocation" has not.
The early church of Jesus Christ regularly gathered together as "God's temple" for corporate worship, daily at first (Acts 2:46) and eventually weekly on the first day of the week (Acts 20:7, 1 Cor. 16:2), "the Lord's day." The early church did not break with the long standing requirement, revealed previously in God's word, for believers to participate in worship assemblies -- even when they saw their New Covenant practice (outwardly changed) against the background of the Old Covenant pattern.
The priestly ritual of the temple has passed away, to be sure; yet, God's New Covenant people looked at their practice of worship in the light of it. For instance, "through Him [Christ] then let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His name" (Heb. 13:15), or again "you are a spiritual house for a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God by Jesus Christ" (1 Pet. 2:5).
The Sabbath/Lord's Day Controversy
The Fourth Commandment says we are to work six days and rest on the seventh. Where has this command been altered? The Paper answers, "Regarding the Old Testament sabbath, New Testament believers confess that Jesus Christ is 'the Lord of the Sabbath' (Mark 2:28)." Of course He is, but did Jesus tell us to observe the Old Covenant Sabbath on a different day than the seventh? "In the New Testament age, [the Sabbath] is thus appropriately called 'the Lord's Day' (Rev. 1:10). Scripture shows that since the Lord's Resurrection, this day has been changed from the last to the first day of the week." I have no objection to calling the first day of the week (the day upon which our Lord rose from the dead) "the Lord's Day." But what does that have to do with sabbaths, with seventh day observances? Does Rev. 1:10 say anything at all about the sabbath, the seventh day? Many expositors are convinced John is saying he was seeing an eschatological vision concerning the coming "Day of the Lord," not anything concerning sabbaths or "church attendance."
I do not believe it can be proven from Scripture that the seventh-day observances have been changed to the first day. Sabbatarians look to Acts 20:7 and I Corinthians 16:2 for support, but it is not there. The sabbath or the seventh day is not mentioned at all. Nothing pertaining to the sabbath is considered. There is the breaking of bread before Paul's departure (which just happened to be on the first day), and there is the collection of gifts for Jerusalem, which seems to be simply a matter of convenience ("that there be no gatherings when I come"). The Sabbath is not at all the issue.
Perhaps there is more significance here than that these two events "just happened" to occur at the first of the week, but it is not necessarily related to the sabbath. In fact, the Paper theorizes in a footnote,
What we see, then, is simply the New Testament (Spiritual) observance of the Old Covenant first-day requirements, not seventh-day resting. Where is the seventh-day sabbath ever mentioned?
The Paper then applies this unproven sabbatical assumption to the practice of the early church, with confusing results: "The early church of Jesus Christ regularly gathered together as 'God's temple' for corporate worship [unBiblical terminology], daily at first (Acts 2:46 [apparently not a normative verse, diluted with the unsupported assertion "at first"]) [but] eventually [only] weekly on the first day of the week (Acts 20:7; I Cor. 16:2)." Here we see the problems with first-day sabbatarianism. Why is it that just because the Bible mentions them breaking bread (in a home) on the first day of the week we conclude they did so only on that day, especially when we are elsewhere told they did it every day?
This phraseology ("corporate worship," "congregational worship," "worship assemblies," and variations on this theme) is unScriptural. The Bible does not speak in terms like this because "worship" means service in every area of life. The New Testament does not require us to go to Jerusalem to hear the Word; the Word is being spread from shore to shore, and we may attribute this to the "miracle" of the "free market" (not the Roman Catholic Church, nor any other ecclesiastical organization, but voluntary, decentralized publishers and laborers in the Word (cf. I Timothy 5:17)).
The failure to see the "anarchistic" character of New Covenant worship is seen in the list of "what constitutes the congregational worship of the New Covenant people of God." As we examine the list, keep in mind that the real question we seek to ask is not whether we are to do these things, but how we are to do them. Perhaps the question is also where we are to do them. Are we able to do these things only in a building whose mortgage payments are being paid by a State-incorporated ecclesiastical institution, or may we obey them in our homes, or in a context of decentralized, informal, voluntary Patriarchal associations?
|From various indications in the New Testament we learn what constitutes the congregational worship of the New Covenant people of God. It includes at least the following items:|
|1. Praise to God (Heb. 13:15; 1 Pet. 2:9 [Is. 43:21]).||
1. Praise to God (Heb. 13:15; I Peter 2:9 (Isa 43:21)
I see nothing in the texts to prove the need for me to "attend church." I continually praise God, as the verses require.
|2. Corporate prayer (1 Tim. 2:8; cf. Phil. 4:6) with congregational amens (1 Cor. 14:16).||
2. Corporate prayer (I Tim. 2:8; cf. Phil. 4:6) with congregational amens (I Cor. 14:16).
The texts do not speak of "corporate" prayer, and if they do they thereby prove that it should be done "everywhere," not just in "church." I Cor. 14:16 seems to refer to the rituals of synagogues, which need not apply now, for the same reasons that the Old Testament verses quoted in the first section of the Paper (on the Old Testament) are not fulfilled literally in our age (cf. e.g., Acts 21:26) (although I am open to the concept of a "room for the unlearned").
|3. Hymns (Col. 3:16; Eph. 5:19).||
3. Hymns (Col 3:16; Eph 5:19)
Certainly this is easily accomplished in private homes. It was not difficult for me to fulfill this command before I began attending a "church."
|4. Scripture reading (Col. 4:16; 1 Thess. 5:27; 1 Tim. 4:13).||
4. Scripture reading (Col. 4:16; I Thess. 5:27; I Tim. 4:13).
The verses here are most interesting. I cannot recall, in all the years I have attended a "church," the book of Colossians being read as commanded in that verse, nor of I Thess. 5:27 being obeyed. Of course, if we obeyed these verses and read large chunks of the Bible with only minimal translational remarks, and then opened the floor to the exhortation by and of every believer-priest (as commanded in Scripture (e.g., Hebrews 10:24-25; 3:13; I Tim 5:1; and especially I Thess. 5:11 and 4:18)), there would be little time for Greek oratory. Which brings us to
|5. Preaching 2 (1Tim. 4:6-16; 2 Tim. 4:2; Acts 20:7-9).||
5. Preaching (2 Tim. 4:2; Acts 20:7-9; I Tim 4:6-16)
Also mentioned is "exhortation" and "teaching." But as we saw in the Vine & Fig Tree workbook, "The Elder's Checklist," all believers are to teach and comfort/ exhort, and nowhere are these duties restricted to an ecclesiastical elite.
Far more significant, however, is the entire notion of "preaching." We have dealt with this issue in a paper entitled "Pulpits and Peripatetics." We saw that there were no one-man lectures (monologue) in the early Church until Greek philosophy was imported into the Church. The traveling philosophers (peripatetics) were popular in the Greco-Roman world, and were too easily imitated among Christians. What passes for "preaching" in our day has absolutely no Biblical warrant. Nowhere in the New Testament is there an example of a "sermon" in the Christian assemblies.
We need to emphasize this point. If the Apostle Paul were invited into one of our meetings and saw only one man give an oration patterned after the Greek philosophers of his day, with absolutely no interaction with the "laymen," Paul would demand to know "What's going on here?" This modern pattern bears no resemblance to the New Testament pattern, although it is unwittingly patterned after ancient Greek itinerant moralists. The "sermon" is an unScriptural tradition, imported from Greco-Roman paganism.
Some preachers, of course, fail to meet even the standards of the Greek philosophers. Their "preaching" is pure entertainment. Others attempt to copy the Greeks in their emphasis on "reason," the "intellect," and "philosophy." This is more common among "Reformed" preachers, who are seldom very entertaining.
Acts 20 is used to establish many modern practices of the churchmen, and yet it supports none of them. Consider "preaching." The verb in the passage cited by the Position Paper (Acts 20:7-9) is "dialogue," not "monologue." F.F. Bruce calls it "conversation." J.A. Alexander must admit the same, but as he comes from the seminary, and wants to approve the oratory of the "preachers," he attempts to read the concepts of special priesthood into the passage:
One of those occasions was to have dinner ("break bread"), about which we shall see more later. For now, note the inescapable fact that there simply was no "preaching" or "sermon" as we popularly conceive it. Alexander, churchman that he is, says it is not "desultory." Who said it was? ("Desultory" is a derogatory term apparently used by ecclesiastics to refer to house-to-house "conversation" or "exhortation" (Hebrews 10:24). It is defined as "lacking in consistency, constancy, or visible order, as in performing a series of actions, giving one's attention to some subject, etc.; disconnected; fitful; digressing from the main subject; random.") No doubt Paul had many things he wanted to say, yet he did not digress from Spiritual matters to talk about Greek philosophy, the slaying-averages of the gladiators, or the New-Year's predictions by the oracles in the Athenian Enquirer. But to say that his conversation with the believers was "an act of official or professional instruction" may mislead many into thinking that it was not "animated conversation," "colloquial discussion," or "informal (speech) unshackled by rhetorical or other rules." It was official only by virtue of who Paul was: an Apostle of the Lord Jesus Christ. But our conversation is not less "official" by virtue of our office: we are priests and kings! When we proclaim the Gospel to our neighbor over herbal tea and cinnamon rolls, we engage in "official and professional instruction" as priest-kings of Christ!! The gates of hell are assaulted and overcome by our "informal discussion." A special and Spiritual act indeed!
Jamison, Fausset, Brown, comment on the Greek: "dialegeto (implying dialectical style, dialogue, and discussion, Acts xvii.2,7; xviii.4,19) is applied to discourses in the Christian church." We do not have "dialogue and discussion" in most "churches," and therefore do not obey Acts 20:7. Do the churchmen really believe that Paul gave an uninterrupted lecture -- for twelve hours?!?
Modern churches have replaced the discussion and animated conversation of the New Testament with "sermons," an invention of the Greeks.
As a result, I cannot obey the Scriptural commands as cited in the second half of point 5 (above) when I "attend church"; I cannot exhort, and can only "teach" through hymns (but not of my choosing). Only one person exhorts in a "church"; the whole congregation violates Hebrews 10:24-25, etc., at least on Sunday mornings when they are "attending church." Perhaps they obey these commands later in the afternoon, when in colloquial discussion they bring all thoughts captive to Christ (2 Corinthians 10:5).
Another unScriptural phrase emerges on this page: "authoritative preaching." Admittedly the Apostles had "authoritative preaching." Do the churchmen claim the same for themselves? All discourse which all Christians engage in, if it is true to God's Word, is "authoritative." On the other hand, nobody's discourse, if it does not conform to Scripture, is "authoritative" (Acts 5:29).
In our workbook entitled "The Elder's Checklist," we examined the duties of the "Pastor" as set forth in the Westminster Confession of Faith's "Form of Presbyterial Church-Government" (1645). We found that every duty which the Confession claims is a duty of the "Pastor" is actually a duty of all Christians (if it is a legitimate duty at all!).
One of the duties of the "Pastor" listed in the "Form of Government" is
While the Apostle could claim to be a "steward of the mysteries of God" (I Corinthians 4:1), we wonder what the theologians mean when they claim the same thing for themselves, after the age of the Apostles, and denying the duty to all other ("non-ordained") Christians. Perhaps they dispense mysteries only when speaking ex cathedra. No, surely whenever any Christian shares the Word of God with another, he dispenses mysteries in the same sense as the churchmen might legitimately claim for themselves (unless Protestant Sacerdotalists claim Apostolic powers).
The first edition of "The Elder's Checklist" was criticized by one theologian for its light use of the reference to "mysteries," as though I was making fun of the Gospel, or of the Apostles. I was making fun, but of the sacerdotal attitude of the Confession; it seemed to me that "Presbyterians" then and now are sometimes not as interested in exalting the Apostles or the Gospel as much as their own ecclesiastical power.
Upon further reflection, however, what began as a light-hearted suggestion of the Confession's "duty" to "be mysterious" seems now to be a fairly significant issue, one that underlies the issue of preaching and this entire paper: The ecclesiocrat works to "mystify" his "office." He wants a "mystique" to surround his position. He seeks not to exalt the Word of God so much as to intimidate and impress the "laity," thus nurturing the destructive "clergy-laity gap." Many are unable to think of the work of the elder as attainable, practical, or understandable, because it is invested with an aura of mystery. The every-day function of nurturing younger believers and watching over them, concerned for their Spiritual growth, is converted into an high and lofty ecclesiastical "office" resembling an inscrutable, supramundane, occultic link between god and man. Rather than rooted in Biblical Law and practical competence therein, this ecclesiocentric authority is esoteric, shrouded in mystery.
In the Priesthood of All Believers, all Christians can strive to be mature, wise, and Godly. In Sacerdotal Protestantism the "uninitiated" can never be "mysterious." They are qualitatively (not just quantitatively) inferior. "Religion" is thus removed to the realm of incense and vestments, and the rest of us must read Ann Landers for "practical" guidance Monday through Saturday.
In sharp contrast to this mentality, the Bible wants us to think of every Christian as one who must dispense divine mysteries (Isaiah 61:6; 66:20-23; I Peter 2:9). In fact, the "mystery" which was hidden in the Old Covenant is the fact that all men shall be a part of God's Kingdom of priests, and they shall function fully, obediently, and spontaneously (Ephesians 2; Revelation 1:6; I Peter 2:5,9; Hebrews 8:8-12) without the rigors of the Old Covenant ceremonial priesthood (Colossians 1:26-27; Ephesians 1:9-10; 3:5-6; Galatians 3:19 - 4:11) and without fear of the principalities and powers which held sway over the nations during the Old Covenant (Revelation 20:1-3; Matthew 28:18-20; Ephesians 3:9-10). When Mrs. Jones tells Mrs. Smith that she needn't go into debt for a new RV, and needn't have an abortion to further her career, the seductive sway of the principalities and powers is assaulted head-on; the mystique of the state-sanctioned abortion clinics and fractional-reserve banks is destroyed. The New Testament tells us that this conversation has cosmic significance; the very gates of hell itself are pulled down and Christ's Kingship extended (2 Corinthians 10:4-5; 1 Corinthians 15:24-25). Mrs. Jones engages in an extremely significant and special act when she brings the Word of God to bear on a neighbor's problems. By virtue of her priestly and kingly office, it is an act of "official and professional instruction" (J.A. Alexander), and yet this shepherding of another believer or this preaching to an unsaved neighbor should be an "ordinary," every-day occurrence. The hocus-pocus of a clerical religionist is not demanded.
The Godly father does not dangle fatherhood over his son's head as an
unattainable "mystery." He seeks to display and explain
fatherhood, helping his son to become a Godly father.
The question before us is, Need we "attend church"? Need we hear the "sermons" of special priests in order to obey the Biblical commands to exhort one another and discuss the Scriptures? Can we obey these commands if we only "attend church"?
|6. The Lord's Supper (Acts 2:42; 20:7; cf. 1 Cor. 11:20).||
6. The Lord's Supper (Acts 2:42; 20:7; cf. I Cor. 11:20).
We have examined the Lord's Supper in other papers. Acts 2:42 is cited, but not verse 46, which says that the Lord's Supper was observed "from house to house," or as the New English Bible has it, "in private homes." Gary North's observations destroy any notion that we must "attend church":
The passage which allegedly supports "sermons" (Acts 20:7) is also supposed to support our obligation to "attend church" to Sup with Christ. Does it? If we read the passage we find it describes a communal meal, not a symbol of a meal. Do you have a meal when you "attend church," or just a symbol of one? Compare the modern "church" "communion" with the fellowship Paul experienced in Acts 20. William Barclay describes the scene:
We may simply note that there is no real communion in a hard pew or folding chair in a drab auditorium looking at the back of someone's neck. Again, were Paul to see our "worship services" he would ask, "Why are you doing this?"
|We should remember that
God's word is normative for us; it is a law, even when not prefaced with
a formula such as "Thou shalt do..." What we find in the New
Testament practice of worship, accordingly, is the standard of worship to
which we must adhere.
Worship is defined, not by personal whims and religious imagination, but solely by the revealed word of God (cf. Col. 2:23). Thus the second commandment forbids us to devise, use, or approve of any religious worship which is not instituted by God Himself -- as well as prohibiting us from neglecting, or taking away from, that worship which God has ordained (Ex. 20:4-6; cf. Lev. 10:1; Deut. 4:2; 32:46; Matt. 15:9; 28:20).
Therefore, our obligation to gather with God's people for worship must be understood and measured by the elements of New Testament worship set forth above. If we are doing what God requires of His people, we engage in worship assemblies which are characterized by praise, corporate prayer, hymns, Bible reading, authoritative preaching, and the sacraments.
Worship Assemblies are Not Just Any Gathering of Believers
In the New Testament, those assemblies which constituted the corporate worship of God were understood as something clearly distinct from informal household fellowship and eating, even though the worship assembly may have been in an actual home. Paul distinguishes between "the Lord's Supper" at the assembly and the ordinary meals in one's house (1 Cor. 11:20, 22).
Being in "the church" at worship is, thus, something more than any normal gathering with other believers -- even if at the gathering we engage in eating, singing, and prayer. This is evident from the way Paul speaks, for instance, in 1 Cor 14:35. He differentiates the situation of a woman asking question at "church" from her asking them "at home."
Moreover, despite the fact that "the church" is the body of believers (i.e. the people), Paul uses the following language: "it is shameful for a woman to speak in the church." The expression "in the church" cannot mean within any gathering of believers, or else women would be prohibited from ever speaking when other Christians are present! "In the church" obviously denotes the assembly of believers for the special purpose of ordained worship.
Worship assemblies for Christians are to be characterized by good order, not confusion (1Cor 14:26, 33, 40). Thus New Testament congregational worship is led and governed by the overseers (elders who "take care of the Church of God," 1 Tim. 3:-45). That this is the rule for New Testament worship is illustrated by the fact that Paul wrote to deliver instructions for the life of the church, including its corporate worship services, to pastors like Timothy (e.g. 1 Tim. 2:1, 8, 11; 4:13; 2 Tim. 4:2).
These pastoral letters had as one of their purposes that men "may know how they ought to conduct themselves in the house of God, which is the church of the living God" (1 Tim. 3:15). In short, the assembling of God's flock is under the oversight of the shepherds (1 Pet. 5:-12) who "preside" over it in all matters, including worship (1Thess. 5:12-13; Acts 20:28).
Assembling for, and Participating in, Worship is Explicitly Required
The New Testament normative pattern, then, is for God's people to gather together on the Lord's day as "the church" for the specific purpose of worship as defined by God's word (praise, corporate prayer, hymns, Scripture reading, authoritative preaching, and the Lord's Supper) under the oversight of the elders.
It is nothing less than the moral obligation of believers to attend these worship assemblies and not have other interests or activities take priority over them -- precisely because assembling for worship is a matter of obedience to God's word, rather than personal discretion.
The New Testament, no less than the Old, requires us to assemble for the purpose of worship. This was the apostolic pattern, as we see in these words: "If therefore the whole church be assembled together..., so he will fall down and worship God, declaring that God is among you indeed" (1Cor. 14:23-25).
The New Testament explicitly commands that we not voluntarily absent ourselves from the church's recognized gathering for ordained worship. "Let us consider one another to provoke unto love and good works, not forsaking our own assembling together, as the custom of some is, but exhorting one another" (Heb. 10:24-25).
When we miss attending the church's worship service or do not participate in its activities, we are not living up to the Scriptural command for us to stand together in worship: "that with one accord you may with one mouth glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" (Rom. 15:6; cf. Eph. 5:19-21). It is expected that believers will regularly partake of the Lord's Supper (Jn. 6:53; 1 Cor. 10:17; 11:24-26), and when it is served, the New Testament exhorts believers to (examine themselves and thereby) actually participate in the eating and drinking (1Cor. 11:27, 28).
Assemblies are Not Just Any Gathering of Believers
This is the most dangerous part of the Position Paper. It marks a retreat from the world-wide spread of the Gospel and cosmic sanctification achieved by Christ, back to the limited holiness of the Old Covenant.
In the pre-Christian world concentric circles of holiness radiated from the temple in Israel, with life getting "less holy" as we move away from God's Presence in the center:
In the New Covenant, King Jesus has definitively cleansed the world, and all is in principle sanctified and consecrated to the service (worship) of His Kingdom. The Position Paper denies this. It says there is a "holier-than-there" place outside of which acts of obedience do not count (as much). The formal is the holy; the informal is the unclean. The credentialed is the sanctified; the voluntary and decentralized are still defiled. Such regression is the unintentional effect of the traditional church-concepts of "worship" and "ordination."
This is clearly an attack on the "house church" movement, both now and (unwittingly) in the New Testament; a bias against home-churches in favor of "official" meetings conducted by "ordained" priests. Even though CCC started out in a home (and the Session would be quick to point out that there is nothing wrong with an "official" church having "formal" worship in someone's house [should circumstances require]), nevertheless, the concept of "official church" and "ordained" priests moves us inexorably out of the home. It must be admitted that in I Cor 11 they were probably meeting in a home. But the CCC Paper claims that
No, the contrast here is between those who recognize the Spiritual importance of "Body-life" and Word-centered fellowship (on the one hand) and those who selfishly and atomistically pig-out (on the other). The point of the agape feast is to honor God's Word and the bread (the "called-out assembly of saints" [Church] [I Cor. 10:17]), not just to fill our stomachs (Matthew 4:4). Paul says that those who will not sanctify their assembling together might as well stay at home and "pig out." If you're not going to worship (by serving, rightly judging (discerning) the needs of the Body (I Cor. 10:17; 11:29)), then you might as well be "neutral" somewhere else. Nevertheless, this was an occasion of "informal household fellowship and eating," albeit with great Spiritual significance. It is possible to come to not a question of physical presence and geographical setting alone, it is a question of the heart (Romans 2:28-19). Modern "communion" has no more sharing than was present among the Corinthians rebuked by Paul.
The Position Paper seems to say that to "attend church" is something qualitatively superior to any non-"church" gathering with other believers -- even if all of the elements of "congregational worship" (as found on page 3 of the Paper) are present. Thus, if we got together in a home and Praised the Lord, prayed together, sang, read the Scriptures, exhorted and taught one another (as we are all commanded), and remembered Christ's death in the "Agape Feast" commanded in the New Testament, we are still violating Scripture unless we also "attend church" in the building of an ecclesiastical corporation with a credentialed seminary graduate in the spotlight. I submit that this is simply preposterous, a remnant of Roman Catholic sacerdotalism. There is not a shred of evidence to support such an ecclesiastical requirement, and the whole of Scripture seems to go against it. The movement in the Bible is away from ceremony and limited special priesthood and toward decentralization, an every-believer priesthood, and a return to Patriarchal social organization.
A Radical Idea?
Our failure as Christians to implement the patriarchal ideal comes from our friendship with the world, and conformity thereto (Romans 12:1-2; James 4:4). It seems strange to us to think of a household communion. In our culture Grandparents live in their own house, Aunts and Uncles are likewise separated from their Nieces and Nephews, and it is "trendy" for children to move out of their parents' house as soon as they possibly can. In our day "the Family" has been described as one or two working parents and (maybe) 2.2 children (recently down to 1.8).
If we were to take a first-century Christian (or even a modern-day member of a number of non-western cultures) up into an airplane over Southern California, and showed them city after city of single-family dwellings, all packed in like sardines, row after row, with parents in one house, children in another, grandparents in another, aunts and uncles in still another, and the poor and homeless wasting away in the abandoned section of industrial parks and urban ghettoes (where the suburban dwellers have coercively zoned them) our passenger would cry. Then he might become enraged: "This is sick! This is an abomination! I could never have imagined such atomism and selfish isolationism!" Little does he know that even among those houses where parents and children dwell together, it is little more than a motel, with students and commuters simply dropping in to sleep at night. In this land there is no property -- genuine property -- over which fruitful, honest dominion can be exercised unhindered by banks or landlords. It is a nation of slaves. Where in our land is an Abraham, with hundreds of adopted children, hundreds of domestic apprentices, hundreds of the poor and needy receiving shelter, hundreds of illiterate orphans being educated and brought up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and several generations of Family in blessed contact and harmonious community? Well, if we believe the churchmen, that ideal is clearly unattainable: we live in the New Covenant, and we do not have the Spiritual resources which Abraham had under the Old Covenant. Right?
The idea of Family communion is in our (atomistic, self-centered) day rightly ridiculed. We are not Patriarchs; we are children. How we cherish the churchmen, who only require us to "worship" on Sunday, and then dismiss us to watch our TV's in isolated silence.
No Neutrality; No Compartmentalization
Should things just stay the way they are? The Position Paper implicitly says they should; amillennial pessimism runs deep, and instead of addressing the impotence and atomism of the modern "family," the Paper demands that Christians continue to believe that only the Greek lectures in the Sunday "worship service" are "special" or "official" and the rest of our lives are only "informal" and "ordinary": "neutral" in other words. The command to imitate the Patriarchs (e.g., Abraham) is replaced with the command to imitate the generation that perished in the wilderness. Rather than exhort believers to hospitality and community, the Paper distinguishes "official" churches from (second-class) house-churches. But the concept of an "official" or "special" place for "ordained worship" in contrast to an "informal household fellowship" or a "normal gathering" is nothing else but the concept of a "Christian" gathering vs. a neutral gathering. But this kind of "neutral" gathering should never occur. We should never have gatherings which are not sanctified and made "special" through the work of Christ. We should always be conscious of Christ's Presence "where two or three are gathered in My Name." And yet, whenever we obey the command to assemble together for praising God, prayer, singing, Scripture reading and study, exhortation and comfort, and remembering the Lord's death in the communal "Love Feast" meal, we are clearly engaging in a very special activity.
The Paper says that "worship assemblies for Christians are to be characterized by good order, not confusion (I Cor. 14:26,33,40)." The implication is that house-churches are disorderly. Modern churchmen would surely find the situation approved by Paul to be "disorderly," even if the prophesying was done in turn (I Cor. 14:27,31) because it was not characterized by monologue, but my multi-logue (vv. 26, 31).
|We conclude by seeing,
therefore, that congregational worship is not a matter of entertainment
and personal discretion (e.g. "shall we go to church or brunch this
morning?"). Nor is it an informal get-together with other Christian
friends where religious activities take place (e.g., "we met at
their house, sang together and prayed"). God's holy and
authoritative word says more.
Scripture makes it our moral obligation not to forsake the assembling of God's flock "as the church" for the specific purpose of corporate worship, as defined by the Lord, under the leading of the shepherds. If we profess to obey Him in all things, let us not be lax or self-willed especially at this important point! It is the highest privilege of the Christian to stand with fellow believers as God's redeemed people, in His presence, to render to Him the praise, adoration and worship which are due to His name. It is preparation for eternity.
Adding to Scripture?
Here is how the Paper concludes:
Where is the phrase "stand together in worship" in Scripture? Is this "adding to the Word" (Deut. 4:2)? Does Ephesians 5:19 - 6:24 command anything that cannot be fulfilled in "informal" Family-gatherings? Has the CCC Position Paper proven that "we are not living up to the Scriptural command" if we exercise hospitality, conversationally exhort the saints, and obey "informally" in our homes the Scriptural commands to worship as seen in the 6 points on page 3 of the Paper?? Is this "Scriptural command" really in Scripture, or just church traditions?
The Old Testament festivals of firstfruits and pentecost (looking forward to Christ's resurrection and the giving of the Holy Spirit) were celebrated on the first day of the week (Lev. 23:11, 16, 35, 39). Likewise, the new creation began on the first day of the week, having been brought about by Christ's resurrection from the dead (1 Cor. 15:20-28; 2 Cor. 5:17; Col. 1:13-19).
 That is, a time of instruction based upon God's revealed word. This entails a number of things, including:
The recent, novel opinion that authoritative preaching of a sermon (exhortation or lesson monologue) is inappropriate within a Christian assembly of believers has no linguistic or theological basis in Scripture, as we see above. Note the example of Paul in Acts 20:7-9. We read that he "discoursed"; according to Kittel, the Greek word refers here to "the delivering of religious lectures." Further, we read that Paul continued his "speech" past midnight; the Greek word (logos) does not (especially unqualified, in the singular, and with definite article) mean dialogue or joint discussion, but an individual's oral presentation, message, or statement (cf. Mk. 2:2; Matt. 15:12; Lk. 1:39; Jn. 4:41; Acts 10:44; 15:32).
|Here again are our four main
points. They are stated rather forcefully and dogmatically. The reader
may not agree with them, but after reading them may be closer to our
position than when he started.
Let us re-examine the Christian life with a prayerful dependence upon Scripture, not the ecclesiastical traditions of men.
Am I a heretic? I would appreciate your comments. Please write me at Kevin4VFT@aol.com
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