My Credo

Our word "creed" comes from the Latin word credo, which means "I believe." Many people have penned their "credo." Here is Einstein's Credo. Here is Cornelius Van Til's.

I consider myself a Christian, a product of the Protestant Reformation. I agree with most of the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647). I've never met anyone who agrees with everything it says. How much agreement is necessary to be "truly reformed?" My credo probably tests the limits. For all intents and purposes, the Protestant Reformation is dead. I believe it had tremendous good effects, but it is no longer "the salt of the earth." Less than one person in a thousand could say anything meaningful about John Calvin or Martin Luther and their contributions to Western Civilization. We're in a new "dark ages." I believe it's time for another Reformation.

My credo begins with the "Vine & Fig Tree" vision of the Prophet Micah.

And it will come about in the last days
That the mountain of the House of the LORD
Will be established as the chief of the mountains
And it will be raised above the hills

And the peoples will stream to it.
And many nations will come and say,
"Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD
And to the House of the God of Jacob,

That He may teach us about His ways
And that we may walk in His paths."
For from Zion will go forth the Law
Even the Word of the LORD from Jerusalem.

And He will judge between many peoples
And render decisions for mighty, distant nations.
Then they will hammer their
swords into plowshares
And their spears into pruning hooks;
Nation will not lift up sword against nation
And never again will they train for war.

And each of them will sit under his
under his fig tree,
With no one to make them afraid.
For the LORD of hosts has spoken.

Micah's vision animated America's Founding Fathers. It must do so again. In the 20th century, secular empires have murdered an average of 10,000 people per day, every single day during the last century. In America, an additional 4,000 babies are killed every day, many times more in China and the "former" Soviet Union. Literally billions of people in our day are separated from the Gospel by tyrannical atheistic or Muslim governments. Christians are anesthetized by complacency and self-indulgence.

It's time for another "95 Theses." Here are mine.

Despite the obvious need for a new Reformation, I am sometimes asked about my conformity to the tenets of the old Reformation. What follows is a short summary of each chapter of the Westminster Confession of Faith (1647) with appropriate links to my webpages below. But first, here is an outline of my most obvious agreements and disagreements, with links to the Extended Discussion below:


CHAP. I - Of the Holy Scripture

I agree with all these chapters.
Click each one for more details.

CHAP. II - Of God, and of the Holy Trinity
CHAP. III - Of God's Eternal Decree
CHAP. IV - Of Creation
CHAP. V - Of Providence
CHAP. VI - Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment Thereof
CHAP. VII - Of God's Covenant with Man
CHAP. VIII - Of Christ the Mediator
CHAP. IX - Of Free Will
CHAP. X - Of Effectual Calling
CHAP. XI - Of Justification The old version of "justification by faith" has devolved into the crippling doctrine of "Justification by Belief Alone." I do not agree with this view. I call my view "Justification by Allegiance."
CHAP. XII - Of Adoption

I agree with all these chapters.

CHAP. XIII - Of Sanctification
CHAP. XIV - Of Saving Faith
CHAP. XV - Of Repentance unto Life
CHAP. XVI - Of Good Works
CHAP. XVII - Of the Perseverance of the Saints
CHAP. XVIII - Of Assurance of Grace and Salvation
CHAP. XIX - Of the Law of God I adhere to the "theonomic" principle. There is debate as to whether the Westminster Confession advocates that principle.
CHAP. XX - Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of Conscience  
CHAP. XXI - Of Religious Worship, and the Sabbath Day I do not believe that Sunday is "the Sabbath." Seems to me that it should still be the seventh day. The eighth-day/first-day is the day of Resurrection, but not rest. But I do not know for sure if we are today required to observe one day of rest out of seven, whichever day that is, or whether we are in a perpetual sabbath rest.
CHAP. XXII - Of Lawful Oaths and Vows Because I believe an oath must be made in the name of the Lord and cannot be "secular," the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals denied me a license to practice law in California, which now requires a secular oath. Details here.
CHAP. XXIII - Of the Civil Magistrate

This is unquestionably one of the most controversial parts of "my credo." I believe socialism in all forms is immoral. I am very consistent in my opposition to socialism and defense of capitalism. This offends many people, who believe "the State" has the right to steal from Jones to give a subsidy to Smith, or to bomb a country "back to the Stone Age" in order to help XYZ Corporation build an oil pipeline. Most people will write me off as an "anarchist" without reading the links below.

CHAP. XXIV - Of Marriage and Divorce  
CHAP. XXV - Of the Church I do not believe in anything that resembles the Roman Catholic Church. In my opinion most "reformed churches" are essentially Roman.

Given the irrelevance of the Confession in light of contemporary statism and mass murder (chap. 23), it is remarkable that the rest of the Confession -- 25% of the total chapters -- deals with ecclesiastical concerns.

CHAP. XXVI - Of the Communion of Saints  
CHAP. XXVII - Of the Sacraments I do not believe in any "sacraments."
CHAP. XXVIII - Of Baptism I believe "baptism" was a ceremonial sprinkling (not immersion) that expired with "the last days" of the Old Covenant.
CHAP. XXIX - Of the Lord's Supper I do not believe we are required to continue observing Passover.
CHAP. XXX - Of Church Censures See chapter 25
CHAP. XXXI - Of Synods and Councils
CHAP. XXXII - Of the State of Men after Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead For all intents and purposes I am a "preterist." I think the prooftexts used by the Westminster Confession apply to events in AD70. I simply don't know what exactly will happen to any individual upon death. It doesn't matter to me, as I believe God is more merciful and more just than I can imagine. I am confident no alleged prophetic events (rapture, second coming, etc.) will happen in my lifetime. I believe it would be sinful to act as though "the second coming" had not already occurred.
CHAP. XXXIII - Of the Last Judgment

Extended Discussion

Quite candidly there are many parts of the Westminster Standards that I think are more important than many chapters of the Confession itself. The Confession's latter chapters on ecclesiology and eschatology are defective, and the chapters on the "ordo salutis," while correct, are not as relevant in the 21st century as, say, the exposition of the Ten Commandments in the Larger Catechism, particularly the political application of the Sixth and Eighth Commandments. Much eschatological confusion could be clarified by ridding Christendom of the anti-christ doctrine of Christ's postponed Kingship as discussed in qq. 42-45 of the Larger Catechism.

I would also add that I feel the Anabaptists were more consistent reformers (and therefore less Romanist) than the "magisterial reformers."

A Chapter by Chapter Summary of the Primary Teachings of the Westminster Confession of Faith

Prepared by James E. Bordwine, Th.D.
I will check this column if I am in  basic agreement with the Confession.

I will explain my convictions and admit my differences in this column. Parts of the Confession that I question are in yellow. Parts that I'm sure I disagree with are in red.

Chapter I
Of the Holy Scripture

1. The Holy Scripture, given by the inspiration of God, is necessary because the works of creation and providence are not sufficient to give a saving knowledge of God. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) My views on the Bible in general.

"Natural Law"

2. God's former methods of revelation have ceased now that the Church possesses the written Scripture. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) See "Propositions on Pentecostalism," by James B. Jordan. 
3. The Scripture's infallible authority depends solely upon the fact that God is its author, and only as the Holy Spirit bears witness by and with the Word in our hearts will we become fully persuaded of this truth. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Why I Worship the Bible
4. Everything necessary for God's glory, our salvation, faith and life is contained in the Scripture and nothing, at any time or for any reason, is to be added to it. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) How to interpret God's Law-Word

5. In all controversies of religion, the Church is to make final appeal to the Scripture, which, by God's providence, has been kept pure in all ages.

checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Can Believers Criticize Church Councils?

Chapter II
Of God and the Holy Trinity

1. There is only one true God who is not dependent on any creature, but has all life, glory, goodness and blessedness in and of Himself. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Total Sovereignty
2. God exercises absolute dominion over all things and may do with them whatsoever He pleases and is due whatsoever worship, service or obedience He requires of His creatures. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. In the Godhead, there are three persons, the same in substance, equal in power and eternity. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter III
Of God's Eternal Decree

1. Although God has unchangeably foreordained whatsoever comes to pass and has predestinated some men and angels unto everlasting life and others to everlasting death, He has done so without becoming the author of sin or doing violence to the will of His creatures. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Total Predestination
Proof that even our thoughts are predestined.
2. Those of mankind whom God has predestinated unto life have been chosen in Christ and are effectually called by His Spirit, are justified, adopted, sanctified and kept by His power; the rest of mankind, from whom God has withheld His mercy, have been ordained to dishonor and wrath for their sin. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter IV
Of Creation

1. In the space of six days, God created the world out of nothing. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) "The Facts" vs. The Faith
2. Man, created in the image of God with the law of God written upon his heart, was left to the liberty of his own will having been commanded not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) The Laws of Nature and of Nature's God

God created man to "exercise dominion" over the earth, which can also be described as "re-creating heaven on earth."

Chapter V
Of Providence

1. The providence of God, whereby he governs all creatures and actions, extends to the first fall and all other sins of angels and men so that His own holy ends are accomplished; yet He is neither the author nor approver of sin. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Providence in American History
2. God sometimes allows His own children to be subjected to manifold temptations so that they might be chastised, humbled and drawn closer to Him. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. God blinds and hardens the wicked by withholding His grace, withdrawing the gifts which they have and giving them over to the power of Satan. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter VI
Of the Fall of Man, etc.

1. Our first parents, having sinned in eating the forbidden fruit, fell from their original righteousness and communion with God. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) "To be as god"
2. Because they were the root of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed to all their posterity, along with the corruption of their nature from which proceeds all the sins which we commit. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. This corruption of nature, though pardoned and mortified through Christ, remains in the regenerate in this life.   Can a Christian be Perfect?
The Confession wants to distance itself from certain groups who have claimed to be sinless. These groups have not been sinless, and they have fudged on the requirements of God's Law in order to make their claim. But this does not prove anything about the new nature of the redeemed.

Chapter VII
Of God's Covenant with Man

1. God has condescended to man by way of covenant. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The first covenant, a covenant of works, promised life in return for perfect obedience; the second covenant, the covenant of grace, freely offers life and salvation to man by Jesus Christ.   Both Covenants require perfect obedience; both covenants grant access to the Tree of Life by grace alone. Some would criticize
anyone who denies the highly controversial Covenant of Works. Yet, the Protestant Reformed Church, following their great theologian Herman Hoeksema, denies it. Walter Kaiser, one of the prominent conservative Old Testament scholars of our day, opposes it. R. J. Rushdoony considered it “deadly wrong” (his words).
Andrew Sandlin
3. This covenant of grace, though differently administered in the Old and New Testament eras, is essentially one. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter VIII
Of Christ the Mediator

1. The Mediator, in which are joined the Godhead and the manhood, was chosen and ordained by God and does, in time, redeem, call, justify, sanctify and glorify the seed given to Him from all eternity. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The Son of God, who was God, of one substance and equal with the Father, did take upon Him the nature of man with all of its essential properties and infirmities, yet without sin, being conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. In His role as Mediator, the Lord Jesus perfectly fulfilled the law, triumphed over death by His resurrection, fully satisfied the justice of His Father and purchased reconciliation and an everlasting inheritance for all those whom the Father has given to Him. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
4. All of those for whom redemption was purchased, including the elect who lived before the incarnation, have its benefits applied to them by Christ working through His Word and Spirit. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter IX
Of Free Will

1. Having been created with a will which was determined neither to good or evil, man, in his pre-fallen state, had the power to will and do that which was well pleasing to God.   The Fall was predestined.
God works in the redeemed to will and to do His good pleasure. (Philippians 2:13)
2. Fallen man is dead in sin, is unable to convert himself and can be freed from his natural bondage only when God translates him into the state of grace. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter X
Of Effectual Calling

1. By His Word and Spirit, and wholly of grace, God effectually calls all those predestinated unto life and translates them from sin and death to grace and salvation. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. Although others may experience some common operations of the Spirit, only the elect, including infants, truly come to Christ and are saved. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XI
Of Justification

1. God freely justifies the elect by imputing to them the obedience and satisfaction of Christ. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. Faith, which is the gift of God, is the alone instrument of justification.   Saving Faith is allegiance.
3. Although they may suffer the consequences of their sins in this life, those who are justified can never fall from the state of justification. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XII
Of Adoption

By the grace of adoption, all those who are justified are made the children of God and fully enjoy all accompanying benefits. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XIII
Of Sanctification

1. Upon regeneration, sin's dominion is broken and a process begins whereby the lusts of the flesh are gradually overcome. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Can a Christian be Perfect?
2. This process is incomplete in this life and remnants of sin remain; nevertheless, the working of the Spirit of Christ enables the regenerate to overcome and experience growth in his pursuit of holiness. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XIV
Of Saving Faith

1. The Spirit of Christ is responsible for the faith whereby the elect are enabled to believe and be saved. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Saving Faith is allegiance.
2. The principal acts of this saving faith are accepting, receiving and resting upon Christ alone for salvation. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XV
Of Repentance unto Life

1. Repentance, which is an act of God's free grace, occurs when a sinner turns from his sin to God and, thereafter, determines to live according to His commandments. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. A general repentance is not satisfactory; we are to repent of particular sins particularly and, if necessary, by a private or public confession, declare our repentance to those that are offended. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XVI
Of Good Works

1. The Word of God alone determines what constitutes good works. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) The Origin of Greasy Grace
2. The good works of believers, which are evidences of true faith, are produced by the Spirit of Christ. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. Good works, although essential, do not merit pardon of sin. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
4. Even though the good works produced by the Spirit are defiled by the believer's imperfection, they are, nevertheless, accepted in Christ. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XVII
Of the Perseverance of the Saints

1. The elect, due to the immutability of God's decree, will persevere to the end and be eternally saved. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The elect may, for a time, fall into grievous sins and suffer all the miseries which accompany such behavior. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XVIII
Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation

1. Believers in the Lord Jesus can be certainly assured that they are in the state of grace. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. This assurance rests upon God's promises, the evidences of His grace and the inward testimony of the Spirit. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. Although the assurance of believers may be shaken, in due time, it will be revived. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XIX
Of the Law of God

1. The law given to Adam, by which he and his posterity were bound to absolute obedience, continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness even after the fall and was delivered by God in the form of the ten commandments. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) The difference between freedom and tyranny is God's Law. The difference between prosperity and poverty is God's Law. Every society that repudiates "the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God" ends up in poverty under tyranny. I am a strong proponent of "Theonomy." I don't agree with every jot and tittle of a book by that title, but I am a strong proponent of God's Law. The Ten Commandments are a summary of laws which made America a great place to live.
2. In addition to this moral law, God gave the people of Israel ceremonial laws, all of which are abrogated under the new testament, and judicial laws, which expired with that nation. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) We are still obligated to obey the "ceremonial laws." These laws can only be obeyed in Christ. (Christ is the Lamb, His people are the Temple, etc.)
3. Although the judicial laws expired, the general equity of these statutes remains applicable. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) This is dangerous phraseology. Every one of the judicial laws is binding in the appropriate fact pattern.
4. God's law reveals His will and our duty and is, therefore, of great use to believers, as well as to others as a rule of life. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  The Bible is a blueprint for all humanity, whether Christian or not.

Chapter XX
Of Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience

1. Freedom from the guilt and dominion of sin, the wrath of God, the sting of death, etc. have all been purchased for believers by Christ. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Can a Christian be Perfect?
2. God alone is Lord of the conscience so that the believer is free from man-made rules and regulations. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. Christian liberty is no pretense for sin. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XXI
Of Religious Worship, and the Sabbath Day

1. The only acceptable way of worshiping God is that given in the Scriptures and requires the mediation of Christ. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The ordinary parts of worship include prayer, the reading of the Scriptures, the sound preaching and conscionable hearing of the Word, the singing of psalms and the proper administration of the sacraments (to these may be added oaths, vows, fastings and thanksgivings upon special occasions). checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. According to the commandment of God, which binds all men in all ages, one day in seven is to be kept holy unto Him during which men are to engage in the worship of God and the performance of deeds of necessity and mercy.   I am agnostic on the issue of one-in-seven rest-days.

Chapter XXII
Of Lawful Oaths and Vows

1. An oath involves calling upon God, whose name ought to be used with all fear and reverence, to witness an assertion or promise. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Oaths in the Bible

The United States requires Americans to take an oath of infidelity.

2. A vow, which is to be made to God alone and which must be in accordance with the Word, may be used to express thankfulness or to obtain what we want. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Did Christ forbid the taking of all oaths?

Chapter XXIII
Of the Civil Magistrate

1. Civil magistrates have been ordained by God for the defense and encouragement of good and the punishment of evil.  

This is unquestionably one of the most controversial parts of "my credo."

I believe in "the Free Market." Maybe you say you do too. I believe in pure laissez-faire capitalism. I'll bet you don't. I believe all forms of socialism are immoral. If you're like most Americans, you believe some forms of socialism are acceptable, even necessary. I don't believe any acts of theft or murder can be justified by majority vote. This means that I am technically an "anarchist" (or "anarcho-capitalist"). Christian anti-anarchism is a contradiction in terms.

During the 20th century more than 10,000 people were legally murdered each and every single day (on average) by civil magistrates around the world. All of these civil governments -- including that of the United States -- are overtly hostile to Biblical Christianity, and should be abolished entirely.

I realize that this position sounds nutty for a Christian. But nowhere in the Bible does God command human beings to form "the State," and everything "the State" does is a violation of God's Law. There is no legitimate function of "the civil magistrate" which God prohibits "the Free Market" from undertaking. It's time for a paradigm shift.

Those three links contain links to hundreds of webpages. This is, in my view, the most significant issue of our day. The issue is capitalism vs. socialism, life or death.

2. Although civil magistrates are forbidden to encroach upon the authority of the Church, they are obligated to protect the Church so that she may freely discharge her duties, without giving preference to any particular denomination of Christians. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. The people are obligated to pray for and obey the magistrates regardless of the magistrates' religious orientation. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XXIV
Of Marriage and Divorce

1. Marriage, which is to be between one man and one woman, was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  I generally agree with Bill Gothard on courtship, marriage and divorce.
2. It is the duty of the godly to avoid being unequally yoked with the wicked in marriage. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. The bond of marriage may not be legitimately dissolved except in cases of adultery or wilful desertion. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XXV
Of the Church

1. The invisible Church is composed of the whole number of the elect; the visible Church is composed of all those who profess the true religion, along with their children. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. It is the duty of the visible Church to gather and perfect the saints. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. The purity of particular Churches is determined by the manner in which they handle the Gospel, administer the sacraments and perform public worship. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
4. Jesus Christ is the alone head of the Church. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
    I disagree with nothing thus far stated (in the summary at left), but our meanings diverge significantly. I am for all intents and purposes "anti-church."
{6}Nor can the pope of Rome, in any sense, be head thereof: but is that Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalteth himself, in the Church, against Christ and all that is called God.[o]
[o] Matt 23:8-10; 2 Thess. 2:3,4,8-9; Rev. 13:6
  As we enter the 21st century, we recognize that this teaching of the confession is utterly wrong. The "orthodox" position in "reconstructionist" circles is the preterist interpretation.

Read More.

Chapter XXVI
Of the Communion of Saints

1. The saints share in Christ's graces, sufferings, death, resurrection and glory; likewise, they share in each other's gifts and graces and are obligated to pursue their mutual edification. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The saints' communion with Christ does not make them partakers of the substance of the Godhead; nor does their communion with one another set aside the right to the private ownership of goods. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

It would be fair to say that I am in substantial disagreement with the remainder of the Confession.

Chapter XXVII
Of the Sacraments

1. Sacraments are signs and seals of the covenant of grace which represent Christ and His benefits to believers. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The efficacy of a sacrament depends solely upon the work of the Spirit and the word of institution. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. Only two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, have been ordained by Christ in the Gospel.   Both baptism and passover were old testament ordinances.
{4} There be only two sacraments: neither of which may be dispensed by any, but by a minister of the Word lawfully ordained   Baptism and passover were properly administered house-by-house without a seminary-trained "ordained" clergyman.

Chapter XXVIII
Of Baptism

1. Through the sacrament of baptism, which signifies the engrafting of the believer into Christ, and which is rightly administered by the pouring or sprinkling of water, the party is admitted into the visible Church. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Immersion was not Biblical. (Heb. 9:10,13,19,21)
2. All who profess faith in Christ, and their infant children, are to be baptized.   Paedobaptism is more Biblical than professors'-only baptism.
3. Even though grace and salvation are not inseparably attached to the sacrament of baptism nor to the moment of its administration, that which is signified will be conferred by the Holy Spirit to all to whom it is due at the appointed time. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XXIX
Of the Lord's Supper

1. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was instituted by Christ Himself as a sealing ordinance and means of grace and is to be observed in His Church until the end of the age. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) But when is "the end of the age?" (off-site)
2. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper reminds us of Christ's sacrifice of Himself but does not involve any real sacrifice itself. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
3. The elements of bread and wine are to be set apart by the declaration of the words of institution and prayer, but are not to be worshiped or adored. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
4. The doctrine of transubstantiation is contrary to the teaching of Scripture, common sense and reason. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
5. Those who partake of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in a right manner do receive and feed upon Christ crucified after a spiritual manner. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  Those who deny Passover to baptized children are illogical.

Chapter XXX
Of Church Censures

1. Jesus Christ has established a government for His Church in the hands of officers who have the power to grant or deny admission to the kingdom.   We are all priests and kings
2. Church censures, consisting of admonition, suspension and excommunication, serve to reclaim erring brethren, deter others from similar offences and maintain the purity of the Gospel and the Church. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  

Chapter XXXI
Of Synods and Councils

1. Synods and councils ought to be convened occasionally as the good of the Church requires. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes)  
2. The determinations of synods and councils, which are ecclesiastical in nature, ought to be received as long as they are in agreement with the Word of God; however, it should be remembered that all such assemblies are subject to error. checkmrk.jpg (9502 bytes) Can Believers Criticize Church Councils?

Chapter XXXII
Of the State of Men after Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead

1. At the time of death, the body begins to decay, but the soul, being immortal, returns immediately to God whereupon the righteous are received into heaven and the wicked are cast into hell.   I am agnostic on matters pertaining to the individual after death. I trust God to be both merciful and just.
2. At the last day, those who are alive shall be changed and the souls of the dead shall be reunited to their bodies; the unjust to dishonor and the just to honor.    

Chapter XXXIII
Of the Last Judgment

1. On an appointed day, God will judge the world, including apostate angels, by Jesus Christ who will require an account of every thought, word and deed.   I am agnostic on this issue, especially as regards timing. I disagree with the application of several verses used to support these ideas.
2. The purpose of this day is for the manifestation of God's mercy, in the salvation of the elect, and of His justice, in the damnation of the reprobate.   Preterism

Christmas Conspiracy


Vine & Fig Tree

Paradigm Shift


Vine & Fig Tree
Taney County, Missouri
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