94 An  Introduction  to  Christian  Economics of the holy grail, the supporter of the free market is forced to add certain key qualifications to the general demand for expansion.  Fkst, that all costs of the growth process be paid for by those who by virtue of their ownership of the means of production gain access to the fruits of production. This implies that society has the right to protect itself from unwanted “spillover” effects like pollution, i.e., that the  so- called social costs be converted into private costs whenever  possible.1 Second, that economic growth be induced by the voluntary activities of men cooperating on a private market. The State-sponsored proj- ects of “growthmanship,” especially growth induced through inflation- ary deficit budgets, are to be  avoided.2  Thkd, that growth not be viewed as a potentially unlimited process over time, as if resources were in unlimited supply.3 In short, aggregate economic growth should be the product of the activities of individual men and firms acting in concert according to the impersonal dictates of a competitive market economy. It should be the goal of national governments only in the limited sense of policies that favor individual initiative and the smooth operation of the market, such as legal guarantees supporting volun- tary contracts, the prohibition of violence, and so forth. The “and so forth” is a constant source of intellectual as well as political conflict. One of the more heated areas of contention among 1. I ~oQollowing  Exodus 22:5-6 rather than R. H. Cease’s clever soph- istry. “The  Problem  of  Social  Cost,”   Journal c+ tiw and  Eco- nomics, 111 (’1 960 ). Prof. Ruff has written:  “This  divergence  between  private and social costs is the fundamental cause of pollution of all types. . . .“ Larry E. Ruff, ‘The Economic Common Sense of Pollutiors~ The Public inter- est (Spring,  1970 ). Other important studies that advocate private ownership and property rights as the approach to solving the pollution problem are Edwin  Dolan, TANSTAA  FL:  The  Economic  Strategy  for  Environmental Crisis (New  York: Hol~, Rinehart and Winston, 1971);  (Tanstaaft  stands for “there ain’t no such  thntg as a free  lunchj’  and is a basic slogan for the anarcho-capitalist  movement. It was popularized by the science-fiction writer, Robert Heinlein.) J. H. Dales,  Pollurion, Property, and Prices (University  of Toronto Press, 1968); T. D.  Crocker and A. J. Rogers,  Environmental  Eco- nomics (  Hinsdale, III.:   Dryden Press, 1971); Murray N.  Rothbm.d:  “The Great Ecology Issue:   Conservation in the Free  Market: The Indwldualist (Feb., 1970), published by the Society for Individual Liberty, Philadelphia. One of the first studies to argue in this fashion was the RAND Corporation’s Water   Supply:   Economics,   Technology,   and   Policy,   by Jack  Hirschleiffer, James De Haven, and Jerome W.  Milliman (University of Chicago Press, 1960), chap. 9. A highly technical introduction to the literature is E. J.Mishan, “The Postwar Literature on Externalities: An Interpretative  Essay;  Journal of Economic Literature,  IX ( 1971), 1-28, and the exchange between  Mishan and Dean Worcester: J. Econ. Lit., X ( 1972), 57-62. On the abysmal failure of the State to control pollution, see Marshall Goldman’s study of the Soviet Union, The Spoils of Progress (MIT Press, 1972). 2. Colin  Clark,  “ ‘Growthmanship~;  Fact and Fallacy,” The  Intercollegiate Review (Jan., 1965), and published m booklet form by the National Associa- tion of Manufacturers. On the dangers of government-sponsored growth, see also Murray N. Rothbard, Man, Economy and State  (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1962), II, 837  ff. 3. Gary North, “The Theology of the Exponential  curve: The Freeman (May, 1970) [chap. 8, above].